Effects of Ethanol and Aqueous Terminalia chebula, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa and The Combined Remedy on Anti-Oxidant Activities and Capacities


  • Kunsurapa Boonyuenyong Department of Graduated School, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University
  • Pannawat Chaiyawatthanananthn Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University
  • Thanaporn Intarawan Center of Excellence in Integrated Science for Holistic Stroke Research, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University
  • Katanchalee Houngiam Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University
  • Yupa Ngankogsoong Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University


Terminalia chebula Retz., Cyperus rotundus L., Tinospora crispa L., anti-oxidant activity, Worayokasarn scripture


Introduction:     Plant antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of many degenerative diseases. A Thai herbal remedy in Worayokasarn scripture consists of three plants i.e., Terminalia chebula fruits (TC), Cyperus rotundus rhizomes (CR) and Tinospora crispa vines (TCL). In the previous studies, polyphenolic TC, methanol CR and ethanolic TCL extracts had free radical scavenging activity. These results support the use of the remedy and the herbal compounds for reducing free radicals.

Objectives:         To investigate ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the remedy and its plant ingredients on anti-oxidant activities and capacities.

Methods:            The remedy (RM) was macerated with 95% ethanol (RME) or water decoction (RMW). Dry TC, CR and TCL plants were extracted with ethanol maceration (TCE, CRE and TCLE, respectively) or water decoction (TCW, CRW and TCLW, respectively). All extracts were measured anti-oxidant activities by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS radical assays, and anti-oxidant capacities by measuring total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC).

Results:               RME and RMW had the anti-oxidant activities by DPPH method (EC50 = 11.00 and 53.49 µg/mL, respectively), ABTS assay (EC50 = 41.66 and 34.06 µg/mL, respectively) and FRAP values (220.78 and 228.84 mg Fe2+/g of extract, respectively), and had anti-oxidant capacities by TPC (48.16 and 64.95 mg GAE/g of extract, respectively) and TFC (116.56 and 134.06 mg QE/g of extract, respectively).  Moreover, TCW showed very strong DPPH (9.43 µg/mL) and ABTS (11.40 µg/mL) activities and the highest TPC (142.15 mg GAE/g of extract).  TCE and CRE had the highest FRAP value (467.14 mg Fe2+/g of extract) and TFC (182.30 mg QE/g of extract), respectively.

Conclusions:      The remedy and the three herbal extracts had antioxidant activities and capacities. The results supported that the remedy should be selected to use for reducing and preventing oxidation.


Download data is not yet available.


Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015;30(1):11-26.

Jakubczyk K, Dec K, Kałdunska J, Kawczuga D, Kochman J, Janda K. Reactive oxygen species - sources, functions, oxidative damage. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2020;48(284):124-127.

Kausar S, Wang F, Cui H. The Role of Mitochondria in Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Its Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases. Cells. 2018;7(12).

Johannsen DL, Ravussin E. The role of mitochondria in health and disease. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009;9(6):780-786.

Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12(1):221.

Saha S, Verma RJ. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius fruits. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2016;10(6):805-812.

Tatang I, Andayana P, Ema S. The Activity Of Radical Scavenging Of 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazil By Ethanolic Extracts Of (Tinospora Crispa (L.) Miers) Stem And Its Fractions. Traditional Medicine Journal. 2015;20(3).

Kamala A, Middha SK, Gopinath C, Sindhura HS, Karigar CS. In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome Extracts and Their Phytochemical Analysis. Pharmacogn Mag. 2018;14(54):261-267.

Folin O, Ciocalteu V. On Tyrosine and Tryptophane Determinations in Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1927;73(2):627-650.

Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry. 1999;64(4):555-559.

Yamasaki K, Hashimoto A, Kokusenya Y, Miyamoto T, Sato T. Electrochemical method for estimating the antioxidative effects of methanol extracts of crude drugs. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1994;42(8):1663-1665.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:15-27.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;26(9-10):1231-1237.

Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Chattopadhyay RR. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(3):244-252.

Abood WN, Fahmi I, Abdulla MA, Ismail S. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:205.




How to Cite

Boonyuenyong, K., Chaiyawatthanananthn, P., Intarawan, T., Houngiam, K. and Ngankogsoong, Y. 2023. Effects of Ethanol and Aqueous Terminalia chebula, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa and The Combined Remedy on Anti-Oxidant Activities and Capacities. Asian Medical Journal and Alternative Medicine. 23, 2 (Aug. 2023), 102–109.



Original Articles