Genotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Antioxidative Potentials of Thai Bee Products


  • Treetip Ratanavalachai Department of Preclinical Sciences (Biochemistry), Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • Wantha Jenkhetkan PhD Graduate Program, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • Chalerm Jansom Department of Research Administration, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • Arunporn Itharat Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • Sumon Thitiorul Department of Preclinical Sciences (Anatomy), Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand



Antigenotoxicity, Bee pollen, Genotoxicity, Propolis, Royal jelly


Introduction: Bee products are becoming increasingly used as nutritional supplements. They have been reported to have antibacterial and antitumor properties.

Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacies on antioxidative and antigenotoxic potentials among these products from Chiangmai, northern Thailand, including their genotoxicity.

Methods: The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity were assessed using in vitro sister chromatid exchange assay in human lymphocytes. Chemical compositions and antioxidative activities were investigated using standard chemical methods.

Results: Our results revealed that the lipid extracts tended to have the least genotoxicity compared to their defatted and crude extracts. The lipid extract of propolis at a nongenotoxic dose had the highest antigenotoxic activities, followed by the defatted and crude extracts of propolis. All extracts of bee pollen and royal jelly had much lower potency. The lipid extract of propolis had the highest antioxidant activities.

Conclusions: In summary, the lipid extract of propolis is the best promising candidate as a genoprotectant.


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How to Cite

Ratanavalachai, T., Jenkhetkan, W., Jansom, C., Itharat, A. and Thitiorul, S. 2022. Genotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Antioxidative Potentials of Thai Bee Products. Asian Medical Journal and Alternative Medicine. 22, 3 (Dec. 2022), 219–229. DOI:



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